For humans, Ketamine induces anesthesia during, before, and after surgery. It is one of the safest anesthetics, since it does not reduce heart rate, breathing rate, or blood pressure as many other anesthetics do. It is also commonly used as an analgesic to relieve pain.
In the US, ketamine is a Schedule III drug under the US Controlled Substances Act. It is available in oral, sublingual, intranasal, intravenous, and intramuscular formulations.
Ketamine for treatment-resistant depression has been the most well researched, however ketamine has also been observed in our clinic to possibly help with anxiety and PTSD. Ketamine's antidepressant qualities have stood out from traditional antidepressants, due to its reliability in producing dramatic changes within hours, rather than weeks or months. The studies surrounding certain types of pain are ongoing.